When choosing a motor for an application, a primary consideration is the speed range it will be operated in. When a motor is operate considerably slower than its ranked base speed, numerous potential adverse effects will come into play, including reduced cooling efficiency, reduced power performance and a modify in the motor’s acceleration and torque features. To mitigate this problem, some motors and acceleration controllers have already been designed especially to drive a load at low speeds with specific control.
Most domestic and commercial motor applications use 3-phase asynchronous induction motors, which operate at a speed that is dependant on the frequency of the supply power. When an application operates at a constant speed, the thing that is required may be a gearbox or speed reducer that brings the engine speed down to the required level. However, many applications require the acceleration of the engine to be various during operation.
This is generally achieved utilizing a VFD or Adjustable Frequency Drive, which controls the speed by modifying the frequency fed to the motor. Selecting the most appropriate motor and VFD type depends on a number of factors, however, it’s important to initial look at how the characteristics of a electric motor change when the rate is reduced.
A motor usually has a base speed, specified by the product manufacturer, that it can be designed to operate at. However, if a electric motor is operated below the bottom speed, it may experience reduced performance of the coolant system. Especially with commonly used Totally Enclosed Lover Cooled (TEFC) and ODP (Open Drip Evidence) motors, where in fact the cooling system consists mainly of a shaft-mounted fan, a decrease in speed results in decreased airflow over the engine and loss of cooling, and heat buildup occurs. Particularly when the motor is operated with full torque at low speeds, heat can easily build up inside the motor to harmful levels.
Gearboxes and speed reducers are mechanical speed reduction equipment found in automation control systems.
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